Wednesday, March 9, 2011

The Philippine Presidents

Andres D. Bonifacio | Emilio F. Aguinaldo | Manuel L. Quezon | Jose P. Laurel | Sergio S. Osmena | Manuel A. Roxas | Elpidio R. Quirino | Ramon D. Magsaysay | Carlos P. Garcia | Diosdado Macapagal | Ferdinand E. Marcos Corazon C. Aquino | Fidel V. Ramos | Joseph E. Estrada | Gloria M. Arroyo | Benigno C. Aquino III | Pres.Rodrigo Roa Duterte

The President of the Philippines is the head of state governing the country. According to the Philippine government, the office has been held by politicians who were inaugurated as President of the Philippines following the ratification of a constitution that explicitly declared the existence of the Philippines.

For leaders of the Philippines prior to the arrival of the Spaniards, see Datu. For leaders prior to the ratification of the 1899 constitution, see Royal Governor of the Philippines. For leaders prior to the ratification of the 1935 constitution, see Governor-General of the Philippines.

The King of Spain was the head of state during the Spanish era (1565–1898) and the President of the United States was the head of state during the American era (1898–1946). Note that the presidents under the Commonwealth of the Philippines were under United States sovereignty, and that the president of the Second Republic is considered to have been running a puppet government of the Japanese during World War II although this puppet government of Jose P. Laurel during the Japanese occupation was officially considered independent by the Japanese. Thus the Philippines had three Presidents during that war - one de facto and two de jure, and two at the same time.

Emilio Aguinaldo was president of the short-lived Malolos Republic between 1899 and 1901. Although the republic never received foreign recognition, Filipinos consider Aguinaldo to be their first president.